In contrast, in ‘The Power of Naming, or The Construction of Ethnic and National Identities in Peru: Myth, History and the Iquichanos’, Cecilia Méndez-Gastelumendi demonstrates that a term used at times to describe a place and at others a people has no stable meaning.61 Initially, Méndez-Gastelumendi had set out to study the ‘Iquichano Rebellion’, which took place from 1826 to 1828 in the south central Andes, waged by a multi-class group opposed to the newly formed republic of Peru.62 She, like other scholars, government groups, anthropologists and novelists, had accepted the ‘Iquichanos’ as ‘a hereditary “ethnic group” of the “Chanka Confederation” ’, a pre-Hispanic people who had resisted Inca expansion.63 However, exhaustive archival research in government documents, reports, maps, missionary diaries, lawsuits, land disputes and tributary records of the province of Huanta returned no mention of ‘Iquicha’ or its resident ‘Iquichanos’.64 Instead, Méndez-Gastelumendi found the first written use of the term ‘Iquichano’ during the 1826–8 uprising.65 Further, she found that ‘Iquicha’ did not appear as an official (or unofficial) town, community or region in these documents.66 Instead, within the documents, ‘Iquichanos’ were all peasants who opposed the republic. 135 (May 1992). ness and as forces limiting the free activity of individuals. His concise proposition spurred a four-part response. The articles were published from 1954 to 2014, though all but two appeared after 1980, reflecting the linguistic and spatial turns. It is the commonplace daily movements we make offset by the occasional trip out of the area. 39 (Apr. Gould and Strohmayer, ‘Geographical Visions’, 3–4; Richard Hartshorne, ‘The Nature of Geography: A Critical Survey of Current Thought in the Light of the Past’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, xxix, 3 (1939). Meanwhile, ‘Munster and Dublin bore the brunt of the revolution at every stage’.87 After presenting this quantitative data, Hart contributes qualitative analysis, examining the reasons that different groups gave for the uneven distribution of violence. Despite Graus’s documentary diligence, anglophone scholars ignored his work, and the only argument that gained attention was one that he never actually made, ‘that Bohemia escaped from plague because of its geographical isolation’.101 Meanwhile, Philip Ziegler included Carpentier’s map in his popular history book The Black Death in 1969, repeating that the plague left Bohemia untouched and assuring the fame of Carpentier’s map.102 Though Zeigler’s account drew responses, Graus was the only scholar who effectively showed that the plague reached Bohemia, though in lesser extremes than in Italy and coastal Europe. Writing during the cold war, Barraclough warns that there are only two options for the modern world: communism (‘a plausible solution for the countless millions of “under-privileged” in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe’) or the path of conquest of ‘living-space’ at the expense of others (‘a solution which entails famine, bloodshed, want, destruction, and its result can only be the survival of the least fit, the crudest, earthiest and least civilized’).35 Barraclough’s desire to slide the scale of historical inquiry from the national and European to an integrated, world history was not just academic; it was a moral imperative which he saw as having drastic consequences. Human geography focuses on the role that human play in the world and the effects that human activities have on the Earth. While physical geography is the study of the natural environment, human An activity place is generally defined as a geographic extent in which people move in the course of their daily activities. Against this, materialist perspectives propose that cultural battles create explicit inequalities in the way that space is occupied and used by members of different groups.15, Human geography took a postmodern turn in the 1990s, producing a form of inquiry that tied the study of geography with social justice and focused on pluralities, binaries, positionalities and deconstruction. It is the study of the many cultural aspects found throughout the world and how they relate to the spaces and places where they originate and the spaces and places they then travel to, as people continually move across various areas. In doing so, we recognize texts as ‘an over-flavoured broth of dubious provenance, whose precise quantities of ingredients must be established, and process of culinary preparation determined’.22 In this way, the meaning of historical texts exists both discursively (within the text) and contextually (from without). In addition to this, they also study the way in which wealth is distributed in various regions over the planet. Drawing on the work of Jean Piaget, Gandy (2007) suggests that children begin developing their sense of place during early childhood. Joyce, ‘History and Post-Modernism, I’, 208. Human geography. ), A Feminist Glossary of Human Geography (London, 2014). For a historical treatment of public space in Past and Present, see Neil MacMaster, ‘The Battle for Mousehold Heath, 1857–1884: “Popular Politics” and the Victorian Public Park’, Past and Present, no. However, you can now use the subject search "cultural geography" to find books published after 2007. Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. This geography quiz features ten satellite images each showing an anthropogenic activity. Postmodern scholars emphasized the ‘slipperiness and instability of language’ and the impossibility of universal definitions for space and place.16.
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