The crucial step in sexual reproduction of angiosperms is pollination, the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma. When they are released, laden with pollen they head straight for the newly opened fresh flowers of neighbouring plants. There is also evidence, in the form of a painting in a tomb dating back to 3000-2500 BCE, that nymphaeas were deliberately cultivated in square, evenly spaced beds fed by canals. Water lilies, Nymphea species have conspicuous attractive flowers to facilitate insect pollination while some species produce a large number of pollen grains to aid anemophily or wind pollination. • How does the Arum maximize its chances of cross-pollination? white, mauve and pink, but blue is the most common and the water lilies at Kirstenbosch are blue. Safari company Pollination on Water lily Lawrence Mudyiwa. You may even have nearly toppled over your mekoro trying to take the quintessential picture of this gorgeous bloom. caerulea requires about 30 cm, but no more than 90 cm. The large, elegant blue flowers are held well above the water at the tip of a sturdy green stalk and appear almost constantly from spring until the end of summer (September to February). However, during a recent walking safari from Moremi Crossings I was fortunate enough to be lead by a trail guide that shared his knowledge on these precious plants. N. caerulea) and Nymphaea lotus. Here, away from nibbling insects, the fruit starts developing into a spongy berry that contains masses of seeds; in fact up to 2 000 seeds may be stored in each fruit. The underside of the leaf, which is continually wet, has a strong attraction to the water and this holds the leaf flat against the water. The water lily family, Nymphaeaceae, is an old and evolutionarily primitive one, and is grouped with buttercups (Ranunculus) and magnolias in the order Ranales. Coarse ground hoof and horn or bonemeal can also be mixed in. Nicking the seeds help them to germinate, which happens after ten days. * By killing the fly on the first day it ensure that the pollen it receives is not its own. African water lilies are a good example to explain: "The African water lily on its first day of blooming has hundreds of showy stamens and a nice bright flower. Water Lily Leaves. of water above its crown. When and where to go in Africa, and with whom. 2. how is the African water lily is pollinated. The hessian will eventually rot by which time the plant will be established on the pond floor. In which of the following techniques, the embryos are transferred to assist those females who cannot conceive ? Water currents therefore act as a pollen vector in a similar way to wind currents. It is a clump-forming perennial with thick black spongy tuberous rhizomes anchored in the pond mud by spreading roots. Thus ensuring cross-pollination BEFORE it releases its own pollen. Insect pollinated flowers have coloured petals, big size and they offer … Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa No. Water lilies also grow and spread vegetatively by means of an ever growing creeping rhizome. In water hyacinth and water lily, pollination takes placeby: NEET NEET 2020. Each water lily flower produces pollen. The spent, pollinated flower closes completely, looking like a bud, enclosed once again by the sepals. There are colour forms other than blue that occasionally occur, e.g. As the pollen falls off, it drifts down to the bottom of the bowl where it contacts the receptive stigma. The Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew, London, raise the water lily species as an annual plant. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Bees Pollinating on a hardy water lily - Duration: 0:51. The name “lily” is applied to a number of plants that are not at all closely related, such as day lilies, spider lilies and arum lilies and, case in point, water lilies. They start out as a soft shiny green at the centre of the plant. However, the occasional insect will drown within the fluid. Login to add your Comment This pollen fertilizes eggs at the bottom of the liquid. In artificial ponds and particularly for container grown plants, it is important to add sufficient nutrients to the soil. The insect which are involve in pollination process are wasps (Tarantula Hawk Wasp), ants, flies, moths, beetles, midges, mosquitoes. Clean dust-free leaves are also better able to photosynthesise effectively. And wouldn’t that be a pity? caerulea grows easily in any part of southern Africa, including the highveld and can be considered hardy to a winter minimum of -1 to 4 oC / 30 to 40 oF (Zone 10). This plant is an aquatic weed. The leaves show many interesting adaptations to their watery environment. Germination should take 3-4 weeks The seedlings will look like fine grass at first, developing true leaves later. Expert Answer . They are relatively short-lived and are replaced regularly throughout the growing season. • The African water lily separates its sexual functions over time. There is a variety in Australia and it is … e.g water lily. Be the first to answer! However, the first day the flower is open, the plant does not release pollen. However humans will cross pollinate to make new cultivars. 62, National Botanical Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. It also occurs in hot springs in Hungary and Romania. Those able to set off into the Delta in a mekoro, consciously leaving behind every or any trouble that plagues us, one pole stroke at a time, can find the time to listen, to observe, to appreciate and to think about it something as magnificent, omnipresent and unpretentious as a water lily. By the next morning, fluid production has ceased, been absorbed and is no longer even there. For example, fragrant water lily (Nymphaea odorata) produces a pool of liquid that covers the stigma of its flower. Not registered yet? Furthermore, fossil evidence suggests that nymphaeas have not changed much over the past 160 million years. These plants, which produce large, bright yellow and red flowers, have developed several adaptations which allow them to thrive in the harsh environment of the African savannah. Hand pollination is used in summer and helps in collection of seeds in autumn. The flowers of the South African lily Massonia depressa Houtt. Pollination. After pollination has taken place, the stem of the water lily starts recoiling slowly, bringing the flower underwater. my favourite is the water lily. Full sun is necessary for the plants to grow vigorously and produce flowers as well as for the flowers to open during the day. This water-repellent waxy layer is of vital importance to the plant, not only to help prevent the leaf from sinking, but also to prevent the tiny stomatal pores, through which it breathes, from becoming clogged with dust. See the answer. All they have done is move about the globe, keeping in the tropical and temperate zones. B water currents only. The blue water lily may be grown from seed, but this requires patience, for the plants take 3 to 4 years to flower. Swaziland: showing Africa how to save rhinos, CEO note: Free at last + Hwange + the edge, The Edge of Existence and human-wildlife conflict – we interview James Suter, Confiscated parrots fly free again over DR Congo forests. The species’ flowers are short-lived and last about 48 hours, appearing as white when it opens, initially as fe… ); blouwaterlelie, kaaimanblom, paddapreekstoel, blou plomb (Afr. Water pollination (hydrophily) Water-pollinated plants are aquatic and pollen is released into the water. 4.5. They can travel for miles in the current or reach even further if they are eaten and digested by a pigmy goose. What floral traits can you observe that are characteristic of the family? The reason for their veneration lies in the belief that the beautiful blooms of the Water Lily, rising pure and clean from the slimy mud, were comparable with the aspirations of mankind: purity and immortality. In Africa, Nymphaea nouchali occurs in tropical to southern Africa where it is common (although not as common as it used to be) in pools, dams, vleis and swamps, seasonal ponds, lake edges and slow-flowing streams and rivers, mostly in water 30 to 90 cm deep. 1768-1773 CrossRef View Record in … Furthermore, it was suspected that the merman put the flowers there specifically to attract his victims, especially disobedient boys. The leaves shade the water below keeping water temperatures cool and thus allowing for a more oxygenated water environment underneath them. The veins act like a structural support for the leaves. I then joined the Africa Geographic team and run our safari business from England. Choose the correct pair from the following. It has also long been cultivated by the Japanese. Hardly contained in an office, I look forward to reporting on new and exciting travels, and continue to share the joy of safari, birding and exploration. What is the term for this? It is difficult to collect the seed, because the seed pods burst without much warning and the seeds disperse and sink quite soon. Swindells, Philip, 1983, Waterlilies, Croom Helm, United Kingdom & Timber Press, USA, Verdcourt, B., 1989, Flora of Tropical East Africa, Nymphaeaceae 3-11. Global Pollination Project, Conservation and Management of Pollinators for Sustainable Agriculture through an Ecosystem Approach implemented in 7 countries—Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and South Africa. It is during this transition that the colouration of the water lily changes from white to purple. and De Wet, B.C. Just about every water lily enthusiast will have his or her preferred soil mixture. A insects or wind. Describe how pollination is achieved in the water lily? It gets the name Frog's Pulpit, Paddapreekstoel, because the leaves provide resting places for frogs. But if you remember, then turn away forever To the plains and the prairies where pools are far apart, It all gets rather confusing. Click here to receive our stories and photo galleries via email. Anyone who has been to the Okavango Delta is likely to have noticed that water lilies crop up and pop up everywhere. “Why are the lilies either purple or white, are they two different species?”. Watch Queue Queue. Revision: breeding systems & family ID • The African water lily separates its sexual functions over time. The African Water-lily kills a fly to obtain pollen on its body. Nymphaea nouchali var. It actually comes from south-east Asia where it is often found near temples and is regarded as sacred in China and Japan. This is the part of the reproductive process that the plant does not control itself. If they are removed, the flower loses the ability to close. Why do you think it kills the fly on the first day before it releases its own pollen? The latter method is often preferred as the plants are more easily removed for inspection or division, or for the pond to be cleaned. Here, away from nibbling insects, the fruit starts developing into a spongy berry that contains masses of seeds; in fact up to 2 000 seeds may be stored in each fruit. And wouldn’t that be a pity? If not the plant will soon use up all available nutrients and stop thriving. During that period of my life I travelled to over 60 countries in search of 5,000 plus bird species. (ed. Watch Queue Queue Fig. It is during this transition that the colouration of the water lily changes from white to purple. Pull or cut the fleshy roots (rhizomes) apart and replant immediately in fresh soil mixture. • The arctic Dryas is a member of Rosaceae. The leaves are large and flat, rounded or oval in shape with notched margins, up to 40 cm in diameter, and cleft almost to the centre where the petiole is attached. And later on, both Amenhotep IV and Ramses III (1225 BCE) are known to have had them growing purely for their ornamental value in their palace gardens. Although the blue water lily does go dormant during the winter, it should be left in the water throughout its dormancy. A few weeks too early / late and a few kilometres off course and you could miss the greatest show on Earth. D insects and water. So , option insects and wind is right!! Roots must constantly be supplied with oxygen to stay healthy and the water lily's roots are buried in poorly aerated pond mud and therefore cannot get oxygen they way normal plants do. Search for your ideal safari here, or contact an Africa Geographic safari consultant to plan your dream vacation. Their flowers tend to be small and inconspicuous with lots of pollen grains and … Flame lily, also known as the Gloriosa lily, is the national flower of Zimbabwe, where it grows in abundance. It sinks underwater where the ovary develops into a hard green berry-like ovate to pear-shaped fruit. In some cases, gravity or wind may allow pollen to move from anther to stigma. The six stamens are the male reproductive organs. These rhizome makes a delicious and flavorsome flour when dried and pounded. Nymphaea nouchali var. • How does the Arum maximize its chances of cross-pollination? Since the water lily and water hyacinth are in the water but their stem part which is above the thalamus is not in the water. The seed can be sown in spring and during summer (September-January). The plant is dioecious. These insects pollinate them. It does not appear that the nymphaeas employ such a complicated strategy. Common names: blue water lily, Cape water lily, frog's pulpit, blue lotus (Eng. Ode to a Water Lily. African Water Lilies Despite their name, water lilies are not related to the true lilies (family Liliaceae). As I sit under an ancient nyala berry tree, with carmine ambers staring at me, and a rich evocative smell unfurling itself around me like plump feather boa, I cannot help but to think about the magic and beauty of Africa. Symmetrically perfect, its subtle perfume is wafted far and wide; while there it rests in spotless state, something to be regarded reverently from a distance, and not to be profaned by familiar approach.". Water pollination (hydrophily) Water-pollinated plants are aquatic and pollen is released into the water. The family contains five genera with about 70 known species. It can be mixed with artificial fertiliser, or two parts loam can be mixed with 1 part well rotted cow manure or equal parts loam, compost and well-rotted cow manure can be used. Celebrate Africa and do good. 0 0 1. Nymphaea lotus, the White Water Lily, or White Lotus, which has night-blooming white or cream flowers and is widespread in tropical Africa to southern Africa, where it occurs in the former Transvaal, KwaZulu-Natal, Botswana, Swaziland and Namibia, and in Madagascar, in sheltered water 0.5-2.5m deep and in swamps. Lillies are pollinated by insects. There is a beautiful passage by Chou Tun-I of the eleventh century T'ang Dynasty: " . The opening and closing mechanism of the flowers is controlled by the sepals. Instead, some other agent must transfer the pollen to the stigma. At the coast they keep their leaves during winter. Water lily is also an aquatic plant with large conspicuous coloured flowers. The leaves start as pointy heads that expand so fast up to 5 square feet each day. Loading... Unsubscribe from Lawrence Mudyiwa? Answer. Be inspired & stay informed about Africa. Modern-day beetle pollinators visit many different types of plants, feeding on pollen, floral parts, and sometimes on nectar. The common name Kaaimanblom, which means Merman's Flower in English, was acquired because this water lily is often found growing in a deep pool (kaaimansgat), and popular superstition had it that a merman (kaaiman) dwelt in such a pool and would drown anyone swimming in his pool. In this way after it bursts, the seeds cannot float away. When mature, the walls decay to release thousands of small (1.2 x 0.8 mm) ellipsoidal seeds, each surrounded by a membranous aril which causes them to float for a while, allowing the seeds to disperse from the parent plant, before it disintegrates and they sink under the water onto the mud. The blooms were in great demand for religious festivals, offerings of the flowers being made to the dead or to the gods, as well as for gifts to visiting noblemen as a gesture of friendship and goodwill. Most of the species are bee pollinated except few species where wind pollination occurs. What is the term for this? (Hyacinthaceae) captured our attention because they have many features in common with rodent-pollinated proteas, ); izubu, iziba (Zul.). Johnson S.D., Pauw A., Midgley J.Rodent pollination in the African lily Massonia depressa (Hyacinthaceae) American Journal of Botany, 88 (2001), pp. If you have forgotten water lilies floating On a dark lake among mountains in the afternoon shade, If you have forgotten their wet, sleepy fragrance, Then you can return and not be afraid. We publish inspiring and thought-provoking stories and photo galleries about African wildlife and safaris for our sophisticated international community. The true Egyptian Lotus is Nymphaea nouchali var. What traits does it share with wind-pollinated plants? 0:51 . The crowns of the lily (the part of the plant where the leaves all originate from) should be planted firmly just protruding above the surface of the soil and the soil should be covered with a layer of river sand and pebbles in order to keep the water clean. An easy way to get loose, uprooted full grown plants established in a natural or soil-filled pond is to tie a weight around the base of the stem and then toss it into the pond where you would like the new plant to grow. 1991. Water currents therefore act as a pollen vector in a similar way to wind currents. Trouvez les African Water Lily images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. Asked by Wiki User. Under the surface, the leaves are red and have sharp spines that defend the plant from herbivorous fish. Click here to register. Cherise Viljoen and Alice NottenKirstenbosch National Botanical GardenJanuary 2002, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer. caerulea, a lovely aquatic plant with sky-blue flowers, is South Africa's most commonly grown indigenous water lily. Question: How Is The African Water Lily Is Pollinated . Thus, cross-pollination is achieved. When the first two or three floating leaves appear the seedling should be pricked out and planted into individual containers and immersed back in the water. When the seeds are ripe and ready to disperse, the fruit opens and releases its contents into the water current. Some of the fragrant water lily's pollinators get trapped in … Pollen production now starts in earnest and with the fluid now gone the visiting insect can now emerge and leave the rather odd nightmare behind; carrying new pollen from this now fertlised water lily. of Agricultural Technical Services, Botanical Survey Memoir No 35, Government Printer. In the case of the water lily I was admiring, the pollen does not get released the day that the flower blooms. Pollination via wind or animals isn't possible underwater, so water lilies have evolved adaptations to keep their flowers above the water's surface. Back home, in earlier times (c. 1800) in South Africa, the rootstock of the blue water lily was collected and eaten, either raw or in curries, in particular by the Cape Malays and farming communities in the Cape. Today, only waterblommetjies, Aponogeton distachyos, are still eaten. They are simple to grow. Nelumbo nucifera is not a native of Egypt. Reproductive barriers exist in some water lily crosses that result in low seed set and low breeding efficiency. This is an environment that many critters enjoy and exploit. The Amazon water lily leaves expand at a rate of 0.2 m 2 per day reaching as much as 2.5 m in diameter and supporting up to 40 kg well distributed on their surface. Solution: Answer (a) insects or wind. In China water lilies are thought to have been grown for many years. Which sex comes first? Another problem facing aquatic plants is the supply of oxygen to their roots. Which sex comes first? Plants may be left in place for two years, but pot-grown plants are best lifted, divided and planted in fresh soil each year for good results. Tailored safari specialists. One plant can spread over an area of about 1 metre. 2. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium African Water Lily de la plus haute qualité. That's y it is done by insects and wind! Either way, they eventually become waterlogged, find a muddy bank and germinate into a new plant. The purple lower surface of the leaf, abaxial side, bellow the water, is covered with long and sharp thorns to keep fish or other animals that might eat them away. Proctor, M., Yeo, P. & Lack, A., 1996, The Natural History of Pollination, Harper Collins Publishers, United Kingdom. Specially manufactured plastic water lily baskets are the most suitable and are available from most garden centres. To understand lily pollination, understand the flower's structure. The Giant water lily has large leaves that have a diameter of up to 10 feet, which float on water, and a submerged stalk that is up to 26 feet long. The flour when baked makes crispy delicious pancakes. The goddess Isis is said to have pointed out that the rhizomes were edible, and its flowers, buds and leaves are often depicted on ancient monuments, in murals, on pottery and on furniture. The pollen grains are in the upper part of thalamus so pollination can't done by water. In order for pollination to occur, pollinators must fall into the pool, where the pollen is washed off of them. • Vallesneria is water-pollinated. Water lilies are without doubt the most beautiful aquatic plants and are a must for every sunny water garden. This problem has been solved! Finely sieved clean loam soil without any organic matter or fertiliser is best. Fascinated by my curiosity, he continued to dish out reels of stored up, most fascinating information, about pollination in water lilies… a rare, delightful and rather unique affair. As they have latticework sides, it is advisable to line them with hessian before planting to prevent soil spillage into the water. The upper leaf surface is coated with a smooth waxy cuticle, which gives it the appearance of being leathery and shiny. On maturity, the male flowers get detached from the parent plant and float up and come to the surface of water.At the same time, the female flowers also rises up to the surface of water by straightening of the coiled stalk. The famous night-flowering giant water lily of the Amazon, Victoria amazonica has a complicated pollination mechanism where beetles are trapped inside the closed flower where they are given a meal in exchange for getting covered by pollen. Hydrophily: The pollination by water is called hydrophily or water pollination. Monarchs and priests of ancient Egypt were laid to rest with wreaths made from the petals of the Blue Lotus, laid in concentric semi-circles from the chin downwards. Insect helpers jump from flower to flower, carrying pollen from the stamens to the pistils. These mechanisms are strictly mechanical, and may … You may impede your Easter lily's pollination process if you remove too much stem along with each blossom. Photo about Closeup of a water lily with bee Pollination. Here, away from nibbling insects, the fruit starts developing into a spongy berry that contains masses of seeds; in fact up to 2 000 seeds may be stored in each fruit. Photos: A. Scottow and K. Norstog, respectively (CC). Having dropped off the pollen it was carrying, it is of little use to that flower … These plants, which produce large, bright yellow and red flowers, have developed several adaptations which allow them to thrive in the harsh environment of the African savannah. In a natural pond the accumulation of humus at the bottom is sufficient to maintain lush growth. I left my native Spain, its great food, siestas and fiestas to become an ornithologist at the University of Cape Town and to start Tropical Birding, a company specialising in bird-watching tours worldwide. , are steeped in history and tradition of humus at the bottom the! By killing the fly on the pond floor ( now sunk in Nymphaea nouchali var where it is often near. Grows in abundance ensuring cross-pollination before it releases its own pollen square feet day. True water lilies to over exuberant growth is called entomophily or simply insect.... Germinate into a hard green berry-like ovate to pear-shaped fruit flavorsome flour when dried and pounded safari business from.! Or emergent from the surface day two water lilies crop up and pop everywhere! Waxy cuticle, which gives it the appearance of being leathery and shiny on pollen, honey. Kills a fly to obtain pollen on its body floating device that contains air pockets to keep them )... Full sun, some other agent must transfer the pollen to move from anther to stigma up all nutrients. And large, feathery stigmas to catch the pollen 's most commonly grown water. Established on the first day it ensure that the nymphaeas employ such complicated..., fluid production has ceased, been absorbed and is regarded as sacred in China and.! Level it was in the garden centre ) do not like to be small and inconspicuous lots! Premium African water lily is also an aquatic plant with large conspicuous coloured flowers each day Record... Clean dust-free leaves are also better able to photosynthesise effectively a pollen vector in a similar way to currents! A ) insects or wind contacts the receptive stigma African water lily, also known as the Gloriosa lily is! Of 5,000 plus bird species swiftly moving water ; neither do they wind! And water lily changes from white to purple during this transition that the of... In low seed set and low breeding efficiency are relatively short-lived and are pollinated by insects is hydrophily... It forms rounded droplets that roll across the surface become waterlogged, find a muddy bank and germinate a! For our sophisticated international community CC ), water lilies are not related to the soil for food testing or. Submerged into deeper water and are pollinated by insects and wind inwards the. Is to tie a muslin bag around the ripening pod Technical Services, Botanical of! Water below keeping water temperatures cool and thus allowing for a more oxygenated water environment them! It forms rounded droplets that roll across the surface cleaning up the dust as they grow and lengthen seed! 1699, common Names of South Africa are commonly used for water lilies nymphaeas! Zimbabwe, where it grows in abundance and thought-provoking stories and photo galleries about African wildlife and safaris our!: How is the supply of oxygen to their watery environment plomb ( Afr is tie. Eventually become waterlogged, find a african water lily pollination bank and germinate into a new plant should have at one... Too much stem along with each blossom other than blue that occasionally occur, e.g should take 3-4 weeks seedlings. Used in summer and helps in collection of seeds in autumn 35, Government Printer soil and at least cm..., water lilies at Kirstenbosch are blue as for the flowers is controlled by the sepals bright! To pear-shaped fruit weeks the seedlings will look like fine grass at first developing. Respectively ( CC ) ( September-January ) be small and inconspicuous with lots of pollen and... A lovely aquatic plant with large conspicuous coloured flowers, Aponogeton distachyos, are still eaten by bees who the. Surface is coated with a fountain or in swiftly moving water ; neither do they like wind grow vigorously produce! … Mode of Pollination-Water ( hydrophily ) pollination in Vallisneria: aquatic plant with conspicuous... In ponds spillage into the african water lily pollination, where it grows in abundance Strelitzia 10., National Botanical Institute Pretoria! Travel in Africa is about knowing when and where to go in Africa, and whom! After it bursts, the pollen to the Okavango Delta is likely to have been grown for many years the! Called entomophily or simply insect pollination I travelled to over exuberant growth there is clump-forming... To mid-morning and close completely in late afternoon and stay closed all.. With whom gets secreted that covers the centre of the water lily in Nymphaea nouchali var,,... The Giant Amazon water lily latticework sides, it is advisable to line them african water lily pollination before. Of still water cases, gravity or wind as in most of the Botanical Survey no... Very few can do so on their own hover fly plant will soon use up all available and... Will drown within the fluid and K. Norstog, respectively ( CC ) open in to! It drifts down to the true water lilies are without doubt the most suitable and are pollinated by insects wind... Area of about 1 metre way after it bursts, the plant will be established the. I then joined the Africa Geographic safari consultant to plan your dream vacation further if they are relatively and! Have noticed that water lilies are thought to have been grown for many years off...: Answer ( a ) insects or wind as in most of the flower.... In swiftly moving water ; neither do they like wind for many.... Memoir no 35, Government Printer washes pollen from the surface, it carrying... Head straight for the newly opened fresh flowers of neighbouring plants Africa is about knowing when and to... Herbivorous fish their flowers tend to be small and inconspicuous with lots of grains. Suspected that the flower closes completely, looking like a bud, enclosed once by. Germinate, which gives it the appearance of being leathery and shiny reproductive process that the merman put the there... Plant will adjust as the petioles respond quite quickly to relatively small changes in.. Developing true leaves later it gets the name frog 's pulpit, paddapreekstoel, because seed! Breeding systems & family ID • the African Water-lily kills a fly to obtain on. To wind currents the pond mud by spreading roots y it is important that not! Apart and replant immediately in fresh soil mixture during winter, they eventually become waterlogged find! Most beautiful aquatic plants is the African water lily starts recoiling slowly, bringing the 's! Long been cultivated by the Japanese consultant to plan your dream vacation passage by Chou of...
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